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Glossary

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Giovannini Group
The Giovannini Group was formed in 1996 to advise the European Commission on issues relating to EU financial integration and the efficiency of euro-denominated financial markets. The Group consists of financial-market participants and meets under the chairmanship of Dr. Alberto Giovannini. The Commission’s Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs provides the secretariat, with officials from the Directorate-General for the Internal Market and from the European Central Bank (ECB) also supporting the Group's work.
Global Depositary Receipt (GDR)
Certificate, denominated in US dollars, which represents ownership of a given number of a company's shares and which can be listed and traded independently from the underlying shares.
Going long
The purchase of a stock or commodity for investment or speculation.
Going short
The selling of a stock or commodity not owned by the seller.
Green shoe
A provision in an underwriting agreement that if there is an exceptional public demand, an issuer will authorise additional shares for distribution by the syndicate.
Greenmail
The situation by which a large block of stock is held by an unfriendly company, which forces the target company to repurchase the stock at a substantial premium to prevent a takeover.
Grey market
The market in a new issue prior to formal offering.
Gross
Before deduction of tax.
Grossing-up
Calculating a gross or pretax rate of interest or dividend by adding a notional amount of tax to the net, or post-tax amount received.
H share
A share of a mainland Chinese company listed on HKEx (the Hong Kong stock and derivatives exchange).